Abstracts from Two Articles on Sexuality by Jack Drescher et al.

Dropped on:August 15, 2015
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Drescher J: Queer Diagnoses Revisited: The Past and Future of Homosexuality and Gender Diagnoses in DSM and ICD. International Review of Psychiatry, 2015

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The American Psychiatric Association (APA) recently completed a several year process of revising the fifth edition of the *Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders* (DSM-5). During that time, there were objections raised to retaining DSM’s gender identity disorder diagnoses and calls to remove them, just as homosexuality had been removed from DSM-II in 1973. At the conclusion of the DSM-5 revision process, the gender diagnoses were retained, albeit in altered form and bearing the new name of ***gender dysphoria***. The author of this paper was a member of the DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders and presently serves on the WHO Working Group on Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health. Both groups faced similar tasks: reconciling patients*** needs for access to care with the stigma of being given a psychiatric diagnosis. The differing nature of the two diagnostic manuals led to two different outcomes. As background, this paper updates the history of homosexuality and the gender diagnoses in the DSM and in the *International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems* (ICD) as well as what is expected to happen to the homosexuality and gender diagnoses following the current ICD-11 revision process.

Lingiard V, Nardelli N, Drescher J: New Italian Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Psychotherapy Guidelines: A Review. International Review of Psychiatry, 2015.

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Although homosexuality was depathologized in the last century and the majority of mental health professionals consider it to be a normal variant of human sexuality, some psychologists and psychiatrists still have
negative attitudes toward lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) clients. Sometimes they provide interventions aimed at changing sexual orientation through ***reparative*** or ***conversion*** therapies. At other times their
interventions are influenced by anti-gay prejudices or simply by lack of knowledge about sexual minorities. This paper argues for the need for appropriate treatment guidelines aimed at providing bias-free, respectful,
and effective interventions given that Italian health associations have delayed providing them. Some of the main guidelines recently approved by the Consiglio Nazionale dell***Ordine degli Psicologi (National Council of
the Italian Association of Psychologists) are presented. Issues addressed include differences between gender and sexual orientation, minority stress, including perceived stigma and internalized stigma, homophobic bullying,
coming out, and resilience. Respectful listening to LGB and questioning clients, affirming their identities and fostering a sense of resilience are essential requirements for all mental health professionals wishing to provide effective interventions in a society where sexual minorities are subjected to discrimination throughout their entire life cycle.

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